ISSN: 1300-7777 E-ISSN: 1308-5263
Correlation Between Baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings and CD38- and CD138-Expressing Myeloma Cells in Bone Marrow and Clinical Parameters in Patients with Multiple Myeloma [Turk J Hematol]
Turk J Hematol. 2018; 35(3): 175-180 | DOI: 10.4274/tjh.2017.0372  

Correlation Between Baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings and CD38- and CD138-Expressing Myeloma Cells in Bone Marrow and Clinical Parameters in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

Arzu Cengiz1, Hayri Üstün Arda2, Firuzan Döğer3, İrfan Yavaşoğlu4, Yakup Yürekli1, Ali Zahit Bolaman4
1Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aydın, Turkey
2Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Aydın, Turkey
3Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Aydın, Turkey
4Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hematology, Aydın, Turkey

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the rate of fluorine-18 (18F) fludeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and CD38 and CD138 expression in myeloma cells in bone marrow and other clinical parameters in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
Materials and Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of MM who underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for initial staging were evaluated retrospectively. We analyzed a total of 42 patients (43-83 years old, mean: 64.4±9.9). Hematological and biochemical tests including hemoglobin, hematocrit, C-reactive protein, β2-microglobulin, creatinine, albumin, calcium, lactate dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were recorded. In bone marrow samples, plasma cell ratio and CD38 and CD138 immunohistochemical staining were evaluated. On PET/ CT images, mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) of the right anterior and posterior iliac crest and right proximal femora were calculated. The correlations between the average SUVmean of bone marrow and CD38- and CD138-expressing myeloma cells and other parameters were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation test. Values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: Types of MM were IgGK (45%), IgGL (21%), IgAK (7%), IgAL (10%), and others (17%). Thirty-two (76%) patients were at stage III according to the Salmon-Durie staging system. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between bone marrow FDG uptake and percentage of plasma cells in bone marrow and CD38 and CD138 expression in plasma cells (r=0.403, r=0.339, and r=0.409) and β2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein levels (r=0.676, r=0.541). There was a negative correlation between bone marrow FDG uptake and hemoglobin and hematocrit values (r=-0.377 and r=-0.368). Other hematological parameters were not correlated with FDG uptake in bone marrow.
Conclusion: Increased FDG uptake is correlated with the percentage of CD38 and CD138 expression in plasma cells in bone marrow. In addition to initial staging, 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful in treatment planning and prognostic evaluation in MM patients.

Keywords: Multiple myeloma, CD38/CD138 antigen, Positron emission tomography/computed tomography, PET/CT


Multipl Myelom Hastalarında Kemik İliği 18F-FDG PET/BT Bulguları ile Myelom Hücrelerinde CD38, CD138 Ekspresyonu ve Hematolojik Parametreler Arasındaki Korelasyon

Arzu Cengiz1, Hayri Üstün Arda2, Firuzan Döğer3, İrfan Yavaşoğlu4, Yakup Yürekli1, Ali Zahit Bolaman4
1Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aydın, Turkey
2Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Aydın, Turkey
3Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Aydın, Turkey
4Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hematology, Aydın, Turkey

Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı multipl myelom (MM) hastalarında kemik iliği florin-18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tutulumu ile plazma hücrelerinde CD38, CD138 ekspresyonu oranı ve diğer klinik parametreler arasındaki ilişkiyi değerlendirmektir.
Gereç ve Yöntem: MM tanısı almış, ilk evreleme amacıyla 18F-FDG positron emisyon tomografi/bilgisayarlı tomografi (PT/BT) yapılan hastalar geriye dönük olarak değerlendirildi. Toplam 42 hasta analiz edildi (43-83 yaş, ortalaması: 64,4±9,9). Hematolojik ve biyokimyasal testlerden hemoglobin, hematokrit, C reaktif protein, beta 2-mikroglobulin, kreatinin, albumin, kalsiyum, laktat dehidrogenaz, sedimentasyon düzeyleri kayıt altına alındı. Kemik iliğinde plazma hücre düzeyi ve immünhistokimya ile CD38 ve CD138 boyanma oranına bakıldı. 18F-FDG PET/BT görüntülerinde sağ proksimal femur, sağ ön ve arka ilyak krest ortalama standart tutulum oranı (SUVort.) kaydedildi. Kemik iliği SUVort. ve myelom hücrelerinde CD38, CD138 ekspresyonu ve diğer klinik parametreler arasındaki korelasyon Spearman korelasyon testi ile analiz edildi. P değerleri <0,05 olduğunda anlamlı kabul edildi.
Bulgular: Hastaların %45’ini IgGK, %21’ini IgGL, %7’sini IgAK, %10’unu IgAL ve %17’sini diğer myeloma tipleri oluşturuyordu. Otuz iki hasta (%76) Salmon-Durie sınıflamasına göre evre 3 idi. Kemik iliği FDG tutulumu ile plazma hücre oranı ve CD38, CD138 ekspresyonu arasında (r=0,403, r=0,339 ve r=0,409) ve beta 2-mikroglobulin ve C reaktif protein düzeyi arasında (r=0,676, r=0,541) istatistiksel anlamlı pozitif korelasyon vardı. Kemik iliği FDG uptake ile hemoglobin ve hematokrit değerleri arasında negatif korelasyon bulundu (r=-0,377 ve r=-0,368). Diğer hematolojik paremetreler kemik iliği FDG tutulumu arasında bir korelasyon saptanmadı.
Sonuç: Kemik iliğinde artmış FDG tutulumu, plazma hücre oranı ve CD38, CD38 ekspresyonu ile ilişkilidir. MM hastalarında 18F-FDG PET/BT, ilk evreleme yanında tedavi planlaması ve prognostik değerlendirmede de yararlıdır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Multipl myelom, CD38/CD138 antijen, Pozitronemisyon tomografi/bilgisayarlı tomografi, PET/BT


Arzu Cengiz, Hayri Üstün Arda, Firuzan Döğer, İrfan Yavaşoğlu, Yakup Yürekli, Ali Zahit Bolaman. Correlation Between Baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings and CD38- and CD138-Expressing Myeloma Cells in Bone Marrow and Clinical Parameters in Patients with Multiple Myeloma. Turk J Hematol. 2018; 35(3): 175-180

Corresponding Author: Arzu Cengiz, Türkiye


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