E-ISSN: 1308-5263
Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Multiple Myeloma [Turk J Hematol]
Turk J Hematol. 2021; 38(4): 254-263 | DOI: 10.4274/tjh.galenos.2021.2020.0682  

Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Multiple Myeloma

İrem Yılmaz Başaran1, Erdal Karaöz2
1Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Cellular Therapy and Stem Cell Production Application and Research Center, Eskişehir, Turkey
2İstinye University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, İstanbul, Turkey; İstinye University, Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research and Practice, İstanbul, Turkey; İstinye University, 3D Bioprinting Design and Prototyping R&D Center, İstanbul, Turkey; Liv Hospital, Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Manufacturing (LivMedCell), İstanbul, Turkey

Objective: Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have potential in human disease modeling and regenerative medicine. The in vitro phenotype of disease-specific iPSC-derived cells can be used to bridge the knowledge gap between clinical phenotype and molecular or cellular pathophysiology and to understand the pathology of diseases, along with further applications, such as creating new strategies for drug screening or developing novel therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to generate iPSCs from multiple myeloma (MM) patients.
Materials and Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from MM patients were induced for pluripotency via the Sendai virus. Fibroblasts were used as a control. Microscopic analysis was performed daily. For colony selection, live staining was done using alkaline phosphatase staining. Reprogramming experiments were confirmed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence (IF) staining, and gene expression analyses. To confirm the spontaneous differentiation potential, an in vitro embryonic body (EB) formation assay was performed.
Results: Fibroblasts and MSCs obtained from MM patients were reprogrammed using the Sendai virus, which contains reprogramming vectors with the four Yamanaka factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Microscopic analysis revealed that the generated iPSCs possessed classical embryonic stem cell-like morphological characteristics. Reprogramming experiments further showed that both cell lines can be reprogrammed up to the pluripotent stage, which was confirmed by flow cytometry, IF staining, and gene expression analyses. Spontaneous differentiation potential was confirmed by in vitro EB formation assays.
Conclusion: iPSCs have been successfully obtained from MM patients for the first time. These cells could clarify the molecular mechanisms behind this disease.

Keywords: Induced pluripotent stem cells, Multiple myeloma, Mesenchymal stem cells, Sendai virus


Multipl Myelom Hastalarından Uyarılmış Pluripotent Kök Hücre Üretilmesi

İrem Yılmaz Başaran1, Erdal Karaöz2
1Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Cellular Therapy and Stem Cell Production Application and Research Center, Eskişehir, Turkey
2İstinye University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, İstanbul, Turkey; İstinye University, Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research and Practice, İstanbul, Turkey; İstinye University, 3D Bioprinting Design and Prototyping R&D Center, İstanbul, Turkey; Liv Hospital, Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Manufacturing (LivMedCell), İstanbul, Turkey

Amaç: Hastaya özgü uyarılmış pluripotent kök hücreler (uPKH) insan hastalık modellemesi ve rejeneratif tıpta büyük bir potansiyele sahiptir. Hastalığa özgü uPKH’den türetilen hücreler, klinik fenotip ile moleküler veya hücresel patofizyoloji arasındaki bilgi boşluğunu kapatmak ve ilaç taraması için yeni stratejiler oluşturmak ve yeni terapötik ajanlar geliştirmek gibi stratejilerle hastalık patolojilerini anlamada faydalı olacaktır. Çalışmamızın amacı multipl myelom (MM) hastalarından uPKH üretmektir.
Gereç ve Yöntem: MM hastalarından izole edilen MKH’ler Sendai virüs yoluyla uyarılarak pluripotensi aşamasına döndürülmüştür. Çalışmada fibroblastlar kontrol olarak kullanılmıştır. Her gün mikroskobik analiz yapılmış, koloni seçimi için alkalin fosfataz canlı boyaması yapılmıştır. Yeniden programlama deneyleri akış sitometrisi, immünofloresan (IF) boyama ve gen ekspresyon analizleri ile teyit edilmıştir. Spontan farklılaşma potansiyelini doğrulamak için in vitro embriyonik cisimcik (EC) oluşum deneyi yapılmıştır.
Bulgular: Fibroblastlar ve MM hastalarından izole edilmiş MKH’ler; dört Yamanaka faktörü olan Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 ve c-Myc ile yeniden programlama vektörleri içeren Sendai virüsü kullanılarak yeniden programlanmıştır. İlk olarak, mikroskobik analiz ile üretilen uPKH’lerin klasik embriyonik kök hücre (EKH) benzeri morfolojik özelliklere sahip olduğu ortaya konmuştur. İkinci olarak, her iki hücre hattının da pluripotent aşamaya kadar yeniden programlanabildiği akış sitometrisi, IF boyama ve gen ekspresyon analizleri ile teyit edilmiştir. İn vitro embriyonik cisimcik (EC) oluşum deneyleri ile spontan farklılaşma potansiyeli gösterilmiştir.
Sonuç: uPKH’ler MM hastalarından ilk kez başarıyla elde edilmiştir ve bu hücrelerin MM hastalığının arkasındaki moleküler mekanizmaları netleştirebileceği düşünülmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Uyarılmış pluripotent kök hücre, Multipl myelom, Mezenkimal kök hücre, Sendai virüs


İrem Yılmaz Başaran, Erdal Karaöz. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Multiple Myeloma. Turk J Hematol. 2021; 38(4): 254-263

Corresponding Author: Erdal Karaöz, Türkiye


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